Types of Laboratories
Different types of laboratories have different requirements
for HVAC, plug load equipment and access. Consequently this
can lead to enormous variations in energy and water requirements.
The main types of laboratories include:
Wet laboratories - where chemicals, drugs
or other material or biological matter are tested and analysed
requiring water, direct ventilation and specialised piped utilities.
Typically includes chemical science laboratories. These require
specially designed facilities. Click here for more information
Dry laboratories - contain dry stored materials,
electronics, and/or large instruments with few piped services.
Typically includes engineering or analytical laboratories that
may require accurate temperature and humidity control, dust
control, and clean power. Click here for more information on
Microbiological/clinical laboratories - often
involve working with infectious agents. Typically require higher
levels of primary containment and multiple secondary barriers
including specialized ventilation systems to ensure directional
air flow, air treatment systems to decontaminate or remove agents
from exhaust air, controlled access zones, airlocks as laboratory
entrances, or separate buildings or modules to isolate the laboratory.
Animal Research laboratories - also known as
vivariums, require highly controlled environments for the care
and maintenance of experimental animals. The facilities are
complex, and expensive to build and to operate. They maintain
tight environmental control over the facility to avoid the introduction
of contaminants or pathogens, and prevent the possibility of
infectious outbreaks, and avoid the transmission of odours.
Click here for more information on animal
Teaching laboratories - unique to academic
institutes. They require space for teaching equipment, storage
space for student belongings and less instrumentation than research
labs. Click here for more information on teaching
Cleanrooms - refers to a controlled environment
(air quality, temperature and humidity) which prevent contamination
and the regulating of environmental conditions, to facilitate
accurate research and production needs. Most typically used
in UK universities for Nanotechnology, medical and pharmaceutical
studies and microelectronics applications.